Volcanic ash damages and disrupts critical infrastructure.
From electricity and transport to communications, wastewater and drinking water, all are at risk from a volcanic eruption.
Volcanic ash settling on paved surfaces poses a major safety hazard.
A study of skid resistance on road asphalt and airfield concrete surfaces helps inform recommendations for effective cleaning and road safety maintenance.
Volcanic ash can play havoc with transport infrastructure, disrupting vital networks.
The degree of disruption depends on particle size and deposit thickness, weather conditions, road surface materials and mitigation actions.
Volcanic ash fall (tephra) can damage or even destroy buildings and infrastructure and threaten health and well-being, along with having a massive impact on both the local and national economy.