Volcanic ash damages and disrupts critical infrastructure.
From electricity and transport to communications, wastewater and drinking water, all are at risk from a volcanic eruption.
A multi-hazard scenario of an Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption reveals the potential impact on transport infrastructure and network users.
Volcanic ash can play havoc with transport infrastructure, disrupting vital networks.
The degree of disruption depends on particle size and deposit thickness, weather conditions, road surface materials and mitigation actions.